There is an array of retaining wall types available, and which you select depends entirely on personal choice. Natural stone walls provide a more rustic aesthetic, while concrete blocks offer more contemporary styles.
Retaining walls are key structures which contain earth or other material laterally to keep both surfaces at equal elevations on either side. They are commonly found in road, railway, bridge, irrigation engineering and land reclamation construction projects.
Non-gravity Cantilever Walls
At its most economical, this type of wall uses its own weight to withstand lateral earth pressure, typically large and massive structures designed to counteract gravity’s force. They may feature brick, concrete or mortared masonry units in their construction as well as having an offset batten or batter (a short wing set back from the main body) for improved stability.
Block walls typically range in height between five and ten meters (as higher walls become too wide for construction and backfilling purposes). Space behind them must be available for construction and backfilling activities, while bearing failure may render these not suitable for soft soil conditions.
This system utilizes an internal stem of steel-reinforced, cast-in-place or precast concrete that cantilevers loads over a base slab, converting horizontal pressures into vertical ones on the ground below. For added reinforcement it may include vertical concrete webs known as counterforts to help reduce shear and bending forces and counterforts can further help to minimize shear forces and bend forces. Proper drainage must also be ensured in order to avoid volume changes that cause lateral stress; generally used on smaller slopes.paving contractor
Reinforced Concrete Cantilever Walls
This type of retaining wall is typically built out of reinforced concrete. It features a stem and base slab (or footing). The latter absorbs vertical stress to prevent toppling due to soil pressure on its sides; thus enabling the wall to remain standing unobstructed. Furthermore, its foundation may feature an anti-tip ‘key’ for added stability.
The key of retaining walls should typically be located near the toe of their base, particularly when soil contains high water pressure or is made up of clay that swells. Design of such types of retaining walls is complex and requires careful consideration of different controlling loads; software such as ASDIP RETAIN can assist designers in reaching an optimal design solution. Counterfort walls also incorporate thin concrete webs at regular intervals along the back wall referred to as counterforts; these reduce shear forces and bending moments in soil but increase weight; precast versions exist or built on site.
These types of retaining walls use cantilever-wall construction to convert lateral soil pressure to vertical force in the ground, stabilizing and protecting soil against overturning or sliding. They’re intended to prevent it from overturning or sliding away.
They feature an L- or T-shaped foundation to withstand lateral pressure more effectively, and can reach heights of 10 meters for use – making them an attractive solution when there is limited space available for retaining walls.
These walls provide additional strength by using cables anchored into the soil for added support, either precast in the factory or assembled on-site. They’re ideal for areas prone to landslides or soil instability such as crib walls (concrete or timber), bin walls, and gabion walls – each equipped with wire mesh “cages” filled with durable rocks to reduce movement and force on the soil.
Vertical Wall Elements
Vertical wall elements known as green walls or living walls have become an increasingly popular trend within modern built environments, providing an easy way to add greenery without taking up valuable floor space. There are various forms of these systems from facades with climbing greenery to those which contain planting medium for pre-grown plants within structures.
One of the primary benefits of rainwater harvesting systems is their ability to lower flood risk by slowing rainwater flows and absorbing some of it, with that water then used for irrigation purposes, thus making the system self-sustainable and ideal for cities where there can be too much runoff into sewer and drainage systems. Furthermore, these attractive systems add visual interest as focal points that increase selling points of buildings containing them – an attractive selling point.